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About Poland


Official language: Polish
Political system: parliamentary democracy
Head of state: President Bronisław Komorowski, 
Head of government: Prime Minister Donald Tusk 
Area (68 in the world): Total - 322 575 km ²
Population (2009) - 34 in the world total: 38 138 000,
Density population: 118.2 inhabitants / km ² 
Administrative divisions: 16 provinces, 379 districts, 2478 communes.
Monetary unit: 1 zloty = 100 groszy (PLN, zł)
Calling Code: +48

Religion: Roman Catholicism. The largest religious community is the Catholic Church, which is approximately 34 200 000 faithful. In the Roman rite, the baptized is 34 158 000 citizens of Poland, which represents about 89% of the population. In Poland, 40.4% of all practicing believers and this is the highest rate in Malta in Europe, while in the eighties, practiced almost 55%. Community of the Orthodox tradition are more than 500 000 of the faithful. To Protestantism gives up almost 150 000 of the faithful, like other religious groups and most of them Muslims - 5 thousand. faithful.

History: beginnings of the Polish state back to the tenth century AD In 966 Prince Polan - Mieszko I - married a Czech princess Dobrawa thus baptized and Poland joined the Christian community. Over the next 4 centuries, the country was ruled by the Piast dynasty. This period was a Polish Czech: the ups and downs. At that time, was, among others. the first university in Poland - Cracow Academy. In the fourteenth century, the power for the next 200 years Jagiellons acquire. This time is a period of splendor of the Polish state. Jagiellons were successful in the economic agriculture, political (planted by members of the house of Jagiello thrones in Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary and Lithuania) and military (the victory over the Teutonic Knights). When the time came for Jagiellonian free election, which consisted of selecting the king of the Polish nobility. Counts were from different European countries, their governments were weak (reduced by the nobility). Poland weakened economically, politically and militarily, led a war against Russia, Sweden and Turkey. The result of this low power there were 3 partitions of Polish initiated by the Empress Catherine II, which resulted in Poland disappearance from the map of Europe for 123 years. Last attempt to save the country was the adoption of the Constitution of May 3 (1791) – I constitution in Europe and II in the world. Polish lands were divided between Austria, Prussia and Russia. The Polish nation has not lost faith in the restoration of independence, as evidenced by the uprisings. Finally, Poland is back on the map of Europe with the end of World War I. Poles enjoyed freedom only 21 years old. September 1, 1939 Poland is attacked by the Third Reich and 17 September attacks in the east of the Soviet Union. 1945 years is only an apparent restoration of independence, as Poland hit the area of influence of the communist Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The country is completely independent Poland in 1989. Democracy is built, Poland joins NATO (1999) and the European Union (1.V.2004).

Legislative power is a bicameral parliament (Sejm - 460 deputies, the Senate - 100 deputies) elected by direct, universal and secret elections for a 4-year term. Right of legislative initiative, under the Polish Constitution, shall be the President, Government, Senate, the group of 15 Members or parliamentary committees, and the group of 100 thousand. citizens. Adopted by the Sejm and Senate of the Act then goes to the President, who may within 21 days to accept and sign it or veto and pass to reconsider the Sejm (the presidential veto may be rejected by the lower house of parliament by a majority of 3 / 5 of votes in the presence of at at least 230 members), or request the Constitutional Court requesting to investigate its compliance with the Constitution.

The president is elected in the general presidential election for 5-year term (the winner is the candidate who obtains an absolute majority). It may exercise this function for a maximum of two terms. It is the supreme representative of the state in domestic and international relations, signed the law adopted by the Sejm and the Senate, ratified international agreements, apply the law of grace. The President designates the Council of Ministers and the President of the Council of Ministers. Ethnic Groups: In 2002, over 96% of the population declared Polish nationality, 1.23% declared belonging to other nationalities, while 2.03% of the population not identified the nationality of its membership. The most numerous national and ethnic minorities are Silesians (173.2 thousand.), Germany (152.9 thousand.), Belarusians (48.7 thousand), Ukrainians (31.0 thousand), Roma (12.9 thousand), Russians (6.1 thousand.) Lemkos (5.9 ths.) and Lithuanians (5.8 thousand). Polish language is an official language of the Republic, even though the law guarantees for national minorities to use their own language, especially in areas where there are larger concentrations of them. In 21 municipalities [26] as the auxiliary official languages are used in German, the language Kashubian, Lithuanian and Belarusian language.

Cities: Warsaw is the capital of the country (1 700 000 inhabitants). The first 10 largest cities complete: Krakow, Lodz, Wroclaw, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin, Bydgoszcz, Lublin, Katowice, Poland. Highly urbanized area, conventionally called the Silesian conurbation population 5 000 000 people (10 cities of more than 100 000 inhabitants).

Throughout history, Poland has been a cuisine influenced by regional climate and, especially, that the areas historically inhabited by Polish Republic of the changing mosaic of peoples. As a result, strong culinary influences are Eastern (Tatar and Turkish, formerly Mongolian), Ruthenian, German, French, Italian and Jewish. The most popular Polish dishes (all of which are also popular in neighboring countries) include: dumplings, cereal, noodles, cabbage rolls, stew, soup, all kinds (including cabbage soup, Krupnik, beetroot soup, zur, soup) dishes with cabbage and potatoes, bread (rye bread, wheat), cakes, vegetables, fruits (apples, pears, various berries, currants), cottage cheese and all kinds of meat (mostly pork, chicken and beef) Polish dessert is a specific Faworki, there are other popular pastries, including a grandmother, cakes or donuts. Among the alcoholic drinks vodka was propelled from cereals and potatoes once ousted current mead. Beer, hop in Poland, is a traditional drink and commonplace, while the wine - less. Popular drink is tea (usually black) is often drunk with the addition of a slice of lemon and sweetened with sugar.

Sports: The most popular sport in Poland is football. Great interest has also slag. In this discipline, the Poles have been very successful in the international arena and the Polish league is the best and most OLAC in Europe. Fishy in it all the best players in the world. Another popular attraction is the retina, after obtaining. European Championships in 2003 and 2005 by the national representation of women, the so-called. “Złotka”; and vice championship the world in 2006 by the national representation of women. In recent years the importance gained by the ski jumping successes Adam Malysz, Formula 1 thanks to Robert Kubica, handball due to the success of Polish national team at the World Championships in 2007 and 2009, and swim through successes such as Otylia Jedrzejczak.

Źródło: Wikipedia

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